Development and in-vitro evaluation of controlled release drug-loaded polymeric nanoparticles from dry powder inhaler formulation
We investigated the development of ciprofloxacin (CIP) loaded poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (PEtOx) nanoparticles (NPs) for potential pulmonary delivery from dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations against LRTIs. NPs were prepared using a straightforward co-assembly reaction carried out by the intermolecular hydrogen bonding among PEtOx, tannic acid (TA), and CIP. The prepared NPs were characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), powder X-ray diffraction analysis (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The CIP was determined by validated HPLC and UV spectrophotometry methods.
The CIP loading into the PEtOx was between 21–67% and increased loading was observed with the increasing concentration of CIP. The NP sizes of PEtOx with or without drug loading were between 196–350 nm and increased with increasing drug loading. The in vitro CIP release showed the maximum cumulative release of about 78% in 168 h with a burst release of 50% in the first 12 h. The kinetics of CIP release from NPs followed non-Fickian or anomalous transport thus suggesting the drug release was regulated by both diffusion and polymer degradation. The in vitro aerosolisation study carried out using a Twin Stage Impinger (TSI) at 60 L/min air flow showed the fine particle fraction (FPF) between 34.4% and 40.8%. The FPF was increased with increased drug loading. The outcome of this study revealed the potential of the polymer PEtOx as a carrier for developing CIP-loaded PEtOx NPs as DPI formulation for pulmonary delivery against LRTIs.
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