Analysis of the global gene expression profile for pearl oyster, Pinctada maxima, exposed to organotin (tributyltin)(silver-lipped pearl oyster). Series GSE13980.
Bivalves are well known sentinel organism in the detection of environmental pollutants. Bioaccumulation of these contaminants in bivalves often manifests as specific alterations of their biological processes, which are used as biomarkers for environmental pollution. Tributyltin (TBT) is one such pollutant previously used as a biocide in marine antifouling paints, it now causes a number deleterious effects in bivalves leaching out of sediments in marine ecosystems. One effect extensively documented is shell abnormalities, including shell thickening and chambering. Changes in amino acid compositions of the shell matrix are associated with these deformations suggesting that TBT mode of action influences the biological control of shell biomineralization. This environmental toxicant's effect on shell biomineralization was analyzed in this investigation at a transcriptional level in order to elucidate the normal shell biomineralization process. P. maxima animals were exposed to TBT in laboratory conditions and a concentration range for chronic and acute toxicity has been established. Animals exposed to chronic concentrations were analyzed for differential gene expression using PmaxArray 1.0 microarray platform and compared against control animals. Genes indentified as differentially expressed in association with TBT exposure included up-regulation of immunity and detoxification related genes and down-regulation of several shell matrix genes. A number of novel transcripts were additionally identified. The potential actions of these genes are discussed with reference to TBT toxicity and shell biomineralization. This investigation has used a microarray to determine transcriptional effects of TBT on P. maxima and proposed the involvement of novel components in shell formation, aiding the elucidation of the process.
In order to determine to differential expression profiles for transcripts relevant to TBT exposure, 9 animals treated with TBT 50 ng1-1 were compared to 9 control animals untreated on a dual channel (Cy3 and Cy5) cDNA microarrays. The RNA for the 9 control animals was pooled together for a common reference while the RNA from the 9 treated animals was separated into 3 pooled replicates, each containing RNA from 3 individual animals. Each of the pooled treatment replicates were labeled (Cy3 or Cy5) as was the controls (opposing treatment label) and hybridized to a separate microarray chip, totaling 3 chips. Each chip had duplicate spot grids printed on the left and right of the chip providing technical replication. In total 6 microarrays were challenged and analyzed comprising 3 biological replicates each with 2 technical replicates.